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Everything about childbirth :

Periods of childbirth

  • Periods of birth. How are the deliveries? Possible complications and a detailed description.

Types of anesthesia

Perineal tear

Correct breathing

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Recovery after childbirth

Unconventional childbirth

Complications during childbirth


Everything about childbirth >> Periods of childbirth >> Periods of birth. How are the deliveries? Possible complications and a detailed description.

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Periods of birth. How are the deliveries? Possible complications and a detailed description.

The onset of labor is considered to be the appearance of uterine contractions, rhythmically repeated every 10-15 minutes. Contractions are gradually strengthened, and the interval between them decreases. With the onset of labor pregnant woman has called giving birth.

Childbirth can be divided into three periods.
The first period lasts from the first birth on average 6-20 hours, multiparous from 3 to 12 hours.


The period begins with the first regular contractions and ends with a full disclosure of uterine throat.

Contractions - a periodic, involuntary contractions of the uterus. During the fight, there is a reduction of muscle fibers (contraction) and offset relative to each other (retraction). In between contractions offset fibers persists. During subsequent retraction of the contractions of the muscle fibers is increased, which results in a thickening of the uterine wall. Moreover, retraction causes stretching of the lower segment, smoothing the cervical external os and disclosure. Cervical dilatation also contributes to amniotic fluid moving in the direction of the cervical canal.

An increase in intrauterine pressure amniotic fluid flock to the inner zevu. Under the pressure of the lower pole of amniotic fluid fetal eggs peels from the walls of the uterus and is introduced into the internal os of the cervical canal. This part of the membranes of the lower pole of the ovum, is being implemented with the amniotic fluid in the cervical canal, called the membranes.

Smoothing and dilatation of the cervix in nulliparous and multiparous occurs differently. In nulliparous disclosed internal os, the cervix is shortened and smoothed edges of the uterine mouth are pulled apart. Multiparous disclosure internal and external os occurs simultaneously and in parallel with short cervix. At full or nearly full opening of the uterine mouth occurs rupture of membranes. Sometimes there is premature rupture of membranes. When excessive density of membranes rupture of membranes occurs after full disclosure of the throat.

The first stage of labor is divided into 3 periods on the basis of duration, frequency and intensity of contractions:
Phase 1 (latent) begins with regular contractions and lasts up to 4 cm of disclosure of uterine throat. It lasts for 5 hours in multiparous to 6.5 hours in nulliparous. The rate of cervical dilatation is 0.35 cm per hour.
Phase 2 (active) is characterized by increased labor. It lasts 1.5-3 hours. The disclosure of uterine throat - from 4 to 8 cm. The rate of cervical dilatation 1.5-2 cm h in nulliparous, 2-2.5 cm per hour multiparous.
Phase 3 is characterized by a slowdown. It lasts 1-2 hours and ends with a complete disclosure of the cervix. The rate of 1-1.5 cm in the opening hours.

2. The second period.

It starts from the date of full disclosure of the cervix and ends with the birth of the fetus. After the discharge of amniotic fluid fetal presenting part descends to the pelvic floor, putting increasing pressure on him, leaving to join struggles attempts - reflex contraction of the striated muscles of the abdominals, diaphragm, pelvic floor. The breaks between contractions shortened to 2-3 min. As a result, the fetus performs translational movement through the birth canal and is its birth. The period of exile in primiparas lasts 1-2 hours in multiparous 15 minutes. to 1 hour. In this period it is especially important to carry out the instructions of the doctor and midwife, helping yourself and your child safely pass this very important stage. Experienced doctors and midwives will take the child after birth, gently patted him on the buttocks, the child scream his lungs rapravyatsya, and he will begin to live extrauterine life. Childbirth is not over yet - the child is still connected to the mother by the umbilical cord, and the last is in the uterus. Subsequently (afterbirth) - this is the placenta, umbilical cord and fetal membranes.

3. Period delivery of the placenta

At this time, there is a separation of the placenta from the wall of the uterus and birth.

After giving birth in a few minutes there are successive fights. There is a reduction in all muscles of the uterus except placental site - the place of attachment of the placenta. Isolation attempts to contribute to the placenta.

The last period is characterized by the release of placental blood vessels. The average blood loss of 200-300 ml. After birth, the placenta uterus sharply reduced returns to the middle position. The bottom of it is located in the midline between the navel and the pubis.

The period is usually 10-12 min., The maximum permissible - 30 min.

After birth, a woman for two hours in the maternity ward are under close medical supervision, which monitors the status of women and the amount of bleeding from the genital tract. At this time, inspected the birth canal soft and if there are gaps, then closed with stitches with prior anesthesia. After examination puerpera transferred to postnatal ward.


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